In the construction of the industrial complexes, inmates of Gulag camps were used as expendable resources. Going to a trial is also pointless: for a number of European countries this is a political issue, and they will make a decision clearly in whose favor. In the same year, when the Soviet representative Konstantin Andrianov became an IOC member, the USSR officially joined the Olympic Movement. The war drained economic resources and was matched by an escalation of American military aid to Mujahideen fighters. The organisers wished to focus on Europe’s sea-change decades from the 1930s to the 1950s which rumbled on to the once ominous, once tragic backdrop of dictatorship. Despite the expectations, collectivization led to a catastrophic drop in farm productivity, which did not return to the levels achieved under the NEP until 1940. The European portion accounted for a quarter of the country's area and was the cultural and economic center. In the English-speaking world, the Soviet Union was also informally called Russia and its citizens Russians, although that was technically incorrect since Russia was only one of the republics. ", Nikos Marantzidis, "The Greek Civil War (1944–1949) and the International Communist System. , Overall, the growth rate of per capita income in the Soviet Union between 1960 and 1989 was slightly above the world average (based on 102 countries). However, Adolf Hitler's foreign policy centered on a massive seizure of Central European, Eastern European, and Russian lands for Germany's own ends, and when Hitler pulled out of the World Disarmament Conference in Geneva in 1933, the threat hit home.  This conflict ended with a decisive Soviet victory, contributing to the unconditional surrender of Japan and the end of World War II. The Soviet Union adopted a command economy, whereby production and distribution of goods were centralized and directed by the government. This was known as de-Stalinization. The truth of the matter was altogether different. On 1 February 1924, the USSR was recognized by the United Kingdom. There was hope for a settlement of the pre-war Tsarist debts, but it was repeatedly postponed. Stalin's laws to "tighten work discipline" made the situation worse: e.g., a 1932 change to the RSFSR labor law code enabled firing workers who had been absent without a reason from the workplace for just one day. David Shearer, for example, argues that there was "a command-administrative economy" but it was not "a planned one". One by one, foreign states reopened trade lines and recognized the Soviet government. Some were deeply committed to the Soviet experiment.  Smaller groups included Roman Catholics, Jews, Buddhists, and a variety of Protestant denominations (especially Baptists and Lutherans). Kulaks, prosperous peasants, were forcibly resettled to Kazakhstan, Siberia and the Russian Far North (a large portion of the kulaks served at forced labor camps). Some historians, however, interpret the lack of preparedness of the Soviet Union to defend itself as a flaw in Stalin's economic planning. Mar 1 Saarland officially rejoins Germany. , Under Lenin, the state made explicit commitments to promote the equality of men and women. Its five climate zones were tundra, taiga, steppes, desert, and mountains. It failed, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin playing a high-profile role in facing down the coup, resulting in the banning of the Communist Party. However, the technical condition of the station deteriorated rapidly, especially after the fire, so in 2001 it was decided to bring it into the atmosphere where it burned down. 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